ISO 3405:2019 pdf download – Petroleum and related products from natural or synthetic sources – Determination of distillation characteristics at atmospheric pressure

03-05-2022 comment

ISO 3405:2019 pdf download – Petroleum and related products from natural or synthetic sources – Determination of distillation characteristics at atmospheric pressure
1 Scope
This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological origin with initial boiling points above 0 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, utilizing either manual or automated equipment. Light distillates are typically automotive engine petrol, automotive engine ethanol fuel blends with up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol, and aviation petrol. Middle distillates are typically aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, diesel, diesel with up to 30 % (V/V) FAME, burner fuel, and marine fuels that have no appreciable quantities of residua. NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction of a material. The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons and related products of synthetic or biological origin have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives important information on composition and behaviour during storage and use, and the rate of evaporation is an important factor in the application of many solvents. Limiting values to specified distillation characteristics are applied to most distillate petroleum product and liquid fuel specifications in order to control end-use performance and to regulate the formation of vapours which may form explosive mixtures with air, or otherwise escape into the atmosphere as emissions (VOC).
4 Principle
The sample is assigned into one of four groups based on its composition and expected volatility characteristics, each group defining the apparatus arrangement, condenser temperature and operational variables. A 100 ml test portion is distilled under the specified conditions appropriate to the group into which the sample falls, and systematic observations of thermometer readings and volumes of condensate recovered are made. The volume of the residue in the flask is measured, and the loss on distillation recorded. The thermometer readings are corrected for barometric pressure, and the data are then used for calculations appropriate to the nature of the sample and the specification requirements.
5.1 General
Typical assemblies of the manual apparatus are shown in Figures 1 and 2. In addition to the basic components described in Clause 5, automated apparatus are equipped with a system to measure and automatically record the vapour temperature and the associated recovered volume in the receiving cylinder. Automated equipment manufactured from 1999 onwards shall be equipped with a device to automatically shut down power to the unit and to spray an inert gas or vapour in the chamber where the distillation flask is mounted in the event of fire. NOTE Some causes of fires are breakage of the distillation flask, electrical shorts, and foaming and spilling of liquid sample through the top opening of the flask.
The flow of distillate down the side of the graduated cylinder can be accomplished either by using a drip-deflector which is inserted in the receiver, or by having the downward length of the condenser tube curve slightly backwards so as to ensure contact with the wall of the receiving cylinder at a point 25 mm to 32 mm below the top of the receiving cylinder when it is in position to receive distillate.

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